No. Raspberry OS uses a bootloader and a kernel that are specific for the Broadcom CPU on Raspberry, it will not work. a ROCK 4C+ while have the mostly to same connectors as a PI, uses different CPU and other components. You could replace it by uboot and a Kernel for the ROCK 4C+, but this is not a beginners task. Download a Debian image for the ROCK, either from Radxa, Armbian, DietPi or others.
Regarding libcamera: I cannot answer this, but libcamera itself seems not to depend on Raspberry HW, however, as the ROCK 4C+ a a relatively new beast, I don’t know how and if it would work out of the box.